Silabus Bangunan dan Stabilitas Kapal ANT-III

1.     Displacement

-      defines the displacement of a vessel as its mass measured in tonnes

-      defines :

-      light displacement

-      load displacement

-      deadweight

-      tonnes per centimetre immersion (TPC)

-      states that, for a ship to float, it must displace a mass of water equal to its own mass

-      states that, when the mass of a ship changes, the mass of water displaced changes by an equal amount

-      states that displacement is represented by the symbol D.

-      states that a graph or scale can be drawn to show the relationship between the displacement and mean draught of a ship


-      given the hydrostatic particulars, finds:

-     displacements for given mean draughts

-     mean draughts for given displacements

-     the change in mean draught when given masses are loaded or discharged

-     the mass to be loaded or discharged to produce a required change of draught

-      states that TPC varies with different draughts

-      uses the hydrostatic particulars to obtain TPC at given draughts

-      uses TPC obtained from a deadweight to find:

-     the change of mean draught when given masses are loaded or discharged

-     the mass of cargo to be loaded or discharged to produce a required change of draught

-      defines 'block coefficient' (Cb)                                                                                                           





2.     Buoyancy                                                                                                

-      describes what is meant by 'buoyancy’

-      states that the force of buoyancy is an upward force on a floating object created by the pressure of liquid on the object

-      defines the centre of buoyancy (B) as being the centre of the underwater volume of the ship

-      states that the force of buoyancy always acts vertically upwards

-      describes that the total force of buoyancy can be considered as a single force acting through B

-      states that when the shape of the underwater volume of a ship changes the position of B also changes

-      states that the position of B will change when the draught changes and when heeling occurs

-      states that the buoyancy force is equal to the displacement of a floating object, the weight of the ship

-      describes what is meant by reserve buoyancy

-      describes the importance of reserve buoyancy

-      describes how freeboard is related to reserve buoyancy

-      describes the purpose of load lines

-      describes the requirements for maintaining water tight integrity


3.     Static stability

-      states that weight is the force of gravity on a mass and always acts vertically downwards

-      states that the total weight of a ship and all its contents can be considered to act at a point called the centre of gravity (G)

-      labels a diagram of a midship cross-section of an upright ship to show the weight acting through G and the buoyancy force acting through B

-      states that the buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the ship

-      labels a diagram of a midship cross-section of a ship heeled to a small angle to show the weight acting through G and the buoyancy force acting through B

-      states stability as the ability of the ship to return to an upright position after being heeled by an external force

-      states the lever GZ as the horizontal distance between the vertical forces acting through B and G

-      states that the forces of weight and buoyancy form a couple

-      states that the magnitude of the couple is displacement x lever, D x GZ

-      states that variations in displacement and GZ affect the stability of the ship

-      on a diagram of a heeled ship, shows:

-     the forces at B and G

-     the lever GZ

-      states that the length of GZ will be different at different angles of heel

-      states that if the couple D x GZ tends to turn the ship toward the upright, the ship is stable

-      states that for a stable ship:

-     D x GZ is called the righting moment

-     GZ is called the righting lever                               


4.     Initial stability

-      states that it is common practice to describe the stability of a ship by its reaction to heeling to small angles (up to approximately 10°)

-      defines the transverse metacentre (M) as the point of intersection of successive buoyancy force vectors as the angle of heel increases by a small angle

-      states that, for small angles of heel, M can be considered as a fixed point on the centre line

-      on a diagram of a ship heeled to a small angle, indicates G, B, Z and M

-      shows on a given diagram of a stable ship that M must be above G and states that the metacentric height GM is taken as positive

-      shows that for small angles of heel (j), GZ = GM x sin j

-      states that the value of GM is a useful guide to the stability of a ship

-      describes the effect on a ship's behaviour of:

-     a large GM (stiff ship)

-     a small GM (tender ship)

-      uses hydrostatic curves or tables to find the height of the metacentre above the keel (KM) at given draughts

-      states that KM is only dependent on the draught of a given ship

-      given the values of KG, uses the values of KM obtained from hydrostatic curves or tables to find the metacentre heights, GM

-      states that there are different minimum requirements for the value of MG ( e.g. for a cargo ship, the recommended initial GM should not be less than 0.15m)             


5.     Angle of Loll

-      shows that if G is raised above M, the couple formed by the weight and buoyancy force will turn the ship further from the upright

-      states that in this condition, GM is said to be negative and D x GZ is called the upsetting moment or capsizing moment

-      describes how B may move sufficiently to reduce the capsizing moment to zero at some angle of heel

-      states that the angle at which the ship becomes stable is known as the angle of loll

-      states that the ship will roll about the angle of loll instead of the upright

-      states that an unstable ship may loll to either side

-      describes why the condition described in the above objective is potentially dangerous                                                                                                





6.     Curves of static stability

-      states that for any one draught the lengths of GZ at various angles of heel can be drawn as a graph

-      states that the graph described in the above objective is called a curve of statical stability

-      states that different curves are obtained for different draughts with the same initial GM

-      shows how lowering the position of G increases all values of the righting lever and vice versa


7.     Movement of the centre of gravity                                                                                       

-      states that the centre of gravity (G) of a ship can move only when masses are moved within, added to, or removed from the ship

-      states that:

-     G moves directly towards the centre of gravity of added masses

-     G moves directly away from the centre of gravity of removed masses

-     G moves parallel to the path of movement of masses already on board

-      calculates, by using moments about the keel, the position of G after loading or discharging given masses at stated positions

-      calculates the change in KG during a passage resulting from:

-      consumption of fuel and stores                                                                                                                                                            





8.     List and its correction

-      shows on a diagram the forces which cause a ship to list when G is to one side of the centre line

-      states that the listing moment is given by displacement x transverse distance of G from the centre line

-      uses the formula, where the angle of list (j) is given by tan j = (GG1) / (GM * D);  where GG1 is the transverse shift of G from the centre line

-      states that in a listed condition the range of stability is reduced

-      describes the inclining experiment and its purpose                                                                              





9.     Effect of slack water

-       states that if a tank is full of liquid, its effect on the position of the ship's centre of gravity is the same as if the liquid were a solid of the same mass

-       states that the centre of gravity of the liquid in a partly filled tank moves during rolling

-       states that when the surface of a liquid is free to move, there is a virtual increase in KG, resulting in a corresponding decrease in GM

-       states that the increase in KG is affected mainly by the breadth of the free surface and is not dependent upon the mass of liquid in the tank

-       states that tanks are often constructed with a longitudinal subdivision to reduce the breadth of free surface                                                                                                        


10.  Trim

-      defines 'trim' as the difference between the draught aft and the draught forward

-      states that trim may be changed by moving masses already on board forward or aft, or by adding or removing masses at a position forward of or abaft the centre of flotation

-      defines 'centre of flotation' as the point about which the ship trims, and states that it is sometimes called the tipping centre

-      states that the centre of flotation is situated at the centre of area of the waterplane, which may be forward of or abaft amidships

-      uses hydrostatic data to find the position of the centre of flotation for various draughts

-      defines a trimming moment as mass added or removed x its distance forward or aft of the centre of flotation or, for masses already on board, as mass moved x the distance moved forward of aft

-      defines the moment to change trim by 1cm (MCT 1cm) as the moment about the centre of flotation necessary to change the trim of a ship by 1cm

-      uses hydrostatic curves or deadweight scale to find the MCT 1cm for various draughts

-      defines the effect of trim on tank soundings

-      uses tank sounding tables with various trim values.  





11.  Loss of intact buoyancy                                                 

-      states that flooding should be countered by prompt closing of watertight doors, valves and any other openings which could lead to flooding of other compartments         


12.  Ship dimensions and form                                                                       

-      illustrates the general arrangement of the following ship types:

-     general cargo

-     tankers

-     bulk carriers

-     combination carriers

-     container

-     ro-ro

-     passenger

-      recognises a given drawing of a general cargo ship, showing holds, engine-room, peak tanks, double-bottom tanks, hatchways and position of bulkheads

-      recognises a given drawing of a typical crude oil carrier, showing bulkheads, cofferdams, pump-room, engine-room, bunker and peak tanks, cargo tanks and permanent ballast tanks

-      recognises a given drawing of a plan view of a tanker, showing the arrangement of cargo and ballast tanks

-      defines and indicates in a given drawing:

-     camber

-     rise of floor

-     tumblehome

-     flare

-     sheer

-     rake

-     parallel middle body

-      defines (e.g. in a  drawing) :

-     forward perpendicular (FP)

-     after perpendicular (AP)

-     length between perpendiculars (LBP)

-     length on the waterline (LWL)

-     length overall (LOA)

-     base line, centre line, midships

-     moulded depth, beam, freeboard and draught

-     deadweight, displacement, lightweight

-     gross tonnage, nett tonnage


13.  Ship stresses

-      describes what is meant by 'hogging' and by 'sagging' and distinguishes between them

-      describes the loading conditions which give rise to hogging and sagging stresses

-      describes how hogging and sagging stresses are caused by the sea state

-      describes how hogging and sagging stresses result in tensile or compressive forces in the deck and bottom structure

-      describes racking stress and its causes

-      describes what is meant by 'panting' and states which parts of the ship is affected

-      describes what is meant by 'pounding' or 'slamming' and states which part of the ship is affected

-      describes stresses caused by localized loading

-      describes the constructional features which compensate for stress





14.  Hull structure

-      recognises structural components on ships' plans and drawings:

-     frames, floors, transverse frames, deck beams, knees, brackets

-     shell plating, decks, tank top, stringers

-     bulkheads and stiffeners, pillars

-     hatch girders and beams, coamings, bulwarks

-     bow and stern framing, cant beams, breasthooks

-      describes and illustrates standard steel sections:

-     flat plate

-     offset bulb plate

-     equal angle

-     unequal angle

-     channel

-     tee

-      recognises longitudinal, transverse and combined systems of framing on transverse sections of the ships

-      recognises the arrangement of frames, webs and transverse members for each system

-      recognises double-bottom structure for longitudinal and transverse framing

-      describes hold drainage systems and related structure

-      describes a duct keel

-      states the stress concentration and loss of strength in the deck round hatch openings

-      recognises deck-freeing arrangements, scuppers, freeing ports, open rails illustrates the connection of superstructures to the hull at the ship's side

-      recognises a plane bulkhead, recognises a corrugated bulkhead

-      states that transverse bulkheads have vertical corrugations and for-and-aft bulkheads have horizontal ones

-      states the purpose of bilge keels and how they are attached to the ship's side


15.  Bow and stern

-      describes the provisions of additional structural strength to withstand pounding

-      describes and illustrates the structural arrangements forward to withstand panting

-      describes the function of the sternframe





16.  Fittings                                                                                                    

-      recognises the arrangement of modern weather-deck mechanical steel hatches

-      recognises the cleating arrangements for the hatch covers

-      recognises the arrangement of portable beams, wooden hatch covers and tarpaulins

-      recognises roller, multi-angle, pedestal and Panama fairleads

-      recognises mooring bitts, showing their attachment to the deck

-      recognises typical forecastle mooring and anchoring arrangements, showing the leads of moorings

-      states the use of tension winches

-      recognises the anchor handling arrangements from hawse pipe to spurling pipe

-      recognises the construction of chain lockers and states how chains are secured in the lockers

-      states how to secure anchors and make spurling pipes watertight in preparation for a sea passage

-      describes the use of a cable stopper

-      recognises derricks and deck cranes

-      describes the bilge piping system of a cargo ship

-      states that each section is fitted with a screw-down nonreturn suction valve

-      states the function of a bilge strum box

-      describes a ballast system in a cargo ship

-      describes the arrangement of a fire main and states what pumps may be used to pressurize it

-      describes the provision of sounding pipes and is familiar with a sounding pipe arrangement

-      describes the fining of air pipes to ballast tanks or fuel oil tanks

-      describes the arrangement of fittings and lashings for the carriage of containers on deck





17.  Rudders and propellers                                                               

-       describes the action of the rudder in steering a ship

-       recognises drawings of modern rudders: semi balanced, balanced and spade

-       states the purpose of the rudder carrier and pintles

-       states that the weight of the rudder is supported by the rudder carrier

-       describes the rudder trunk

-       describes the arrangement of a watertight gland round the rudder stock

-       describes the principle of screw propulsion

-       describes a propeller and defines, with respect to it:

-     boss

-     rake

-     skew

-     face

-     back

-     tip

-     radius

-     pitch

-       compares fixed-pitch with controllable-pitch propellers

-       states the arrangement of an oil-lubricated sterntube and tailshaft

-       states how the propeller is attached to the tailshaft

-       describes why the shaft tunnel must be of watertight construction and how water is prevented from entering the engine-room if the tunnel becomes flooded





18.  Load lines and draft marks                                                                      

-       describes where the deck line is marked

-       defines 'freeboard'

-       describes what is meant by 'assigned summer freeboard'

-       recognises the load line mark and the load lines of a ship

-       explains how the chart of zones, areas and seasonal periods is used to find the applicable load line

-       demonstrates how to read draughts

-       describes that the freeboard, measured from the upper edge of the deck line to the water on each side, is used to check that the ship is within its permitted limits of loading


 Sumber: QSS


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